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The development of coastal areas depends on shore protection against waves and currents. Solid breakwaters are commonly used along shorelines, but they are often unsuitable due to environmental impacts. Permeable breakwaters like rows of piles have been suggested as a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the performance of piles alone has been proven as too weak. Breakwaters with impermeable skirts in combination with piles are assumed to perform better. However, wave-structure-interaction and flow behavior of this type are more complicated, but have to be analyzed before designing.The objective of the present dissertation thesis is to describe the flow behavior and the hydraulic performance of this kind of permeable breakwaters. A numerical model has been developed based on an Eigen function expansion method for wave interaction with a single and a double vertical slotted wall. Experimental tests have been conducted on a model scale of 1 to 25 to validate the numerical model and to assess the performance characteristics of the reflection (CR), transmission (CT) and energy losses (CE). Additional, experimental tests have been conducted to measure and analyze the velocity distribution in front and behind of the vertical slotted wall and to understand the pattern that dissipates wave energy.To fulfill the above-mentioned objectives, this thesis is divided into the following Chapters: Chapter 1 gives an introduction into the problem. Chapter 2 is dealing with the state of the art and an extensive literature review. A numerical model based on Eigen fuction expansion is described in Chapter 3. The numerical model is suitable to determine the wave interaction with single or double vertical slotted wall breakwaters. Furthermore, Stokes second-order wave theory has been compared to the linear wave theory assumption. In Chapter 4, a series of experimental tests are shown, which have been conducted in the wave flume of the University of Wuppertal. The set-up and the measurement devices are explained. Additional, attention has been given to the measurement of the velocities via PIV. The results have been discussed and analyzed with emphasis on the interaction of waves with the vertical slotted walls. In Chapter 5, the results of the numerical model are compared with previous studies and the experimental work of this study. Chapter 6 closes with a summary, concluding remarks, recommendations and suggestions for future studies. The major results from this study are the following:- The numerical model has been validated by comparisons with previous studies and experimental results of this study. The agreement is generally satisfying. - The degree of target protection can be achieved through a combination of permeability area and its location. - The coefficient of friction f and the coefficient of porosity E have significant influence on CR, CT and CE of the permeable breakwaters, while the influence of added mass coefficient cm is low and can be neglected for this configuration. - For the case of double walls, the second wall should be constructed at a distance of an uneven multiple of a quarter of the wavelength (0.25 L, 0.75 L and 1.25 L). This position can increase the dissipation of the energy up to 40 % than a single wall. - PIV measurements can be used in the laboratory for measuring the co-existing and transmitted waves and to visualize the wave interaction with a permeable breakwater. The achievable accuracy of PIV measurement within this set-up is a function of the relative time increment S t /T.Finally, it is recommended to use vertical slotted walls as breakwaters for the protection against waves, whenever it is possible. The progressively decreasing depth of the permeability part of the wall can be used to minimize the transmission of wave energy. For double rows of vertical slotted walls, the spacing between rows should be an uneven multiple of a quarter of the wavelength.
Budgets have a big influence on the economy and society. With many countries, about 50 percent of total expenditures and income pass through the budget via taxes, charges and expenditures. In recent years many countries, e. g. in the OECD and the EU, have tended to use this influence in an environmentally rational way. Tradi tional environmental policy has relied on command-and-control and cnd-olpipc technologies that have proven to be insufficient in coping with the challenge of glo bal change. Hence, many countries have started to investigate the environmental impacts of their budgets by looking at existing taxes and charges, as well as tax allowances and exemptions and other relevant regulations and expenditures -even to have a special impact on the environment. The implementation of those not meant such findings is now broadly discussed in these countries. This publication will contribute to the debate. It is a result of a wider project called Green Budget Reform -Prospects in Central and Eastern Europe. initiated by Vida Ogorelec Wagner, managing Director of Umanotera, The Sloven ian Founda tion for Sustainable Development, and then jointly developed. proposed to the EC and carried out in partnership with Kai Schlegelmich of the Wuppertal Institute in Germany. The project comprised an international seminar on Green Budget Reform in April 1997 at Lake Bled, Slovenia, and the Case Study of Sloveilla.
Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1,3, University of Wuppertal, course: Hauptseminar - New York in American Literature, language: English, comment: Gute umfassende Argumentation, gut am Text und an Sekundärliteratur abgestützt. , abstract: Stephen Crane published his first novel Maggie: A Girl of the Streets in March 1893 on his own expenses under the pseudonym 'Johnston Smith'. As a young author 'who was yet to find a public he was cautious about immediately identifying himself with a work that he himself regarded as shocking' (Ziff x) because it tried 'to show that environment is a tremendous thing [...] and frequently shapes lives regardless' (Sorrentino 82).That Maggie is one of the major works to criticize the environment of late 19th century New York City becomes obvious when the reader notices that the protagonist Maggie does neither occur in the first, nor in the last chapter of the novella.Looking more closely at the word 'environment' itself one can observe that the term is ambiguous. On the surface the term seems to describe the external living conditions, namely where and under which circumstances the characters live. But it is not the life in the Bowery and the tenements Stephen Crane is referring to since Maggie does not die of starvation or diseases, but of the mental influences, such as the Church and the theater that constantly affect the people. Exactly this environment, Jacob Riis argues, 'is indeed a 'tremendous thing in the world' and it frequently shapes the lives of children who grow up in it' (LaFrance 42).Nevertheless, the external living conditions determine the way people are and act. 'Crane depicts the influence the city exerts upon the perception of reality of its inhabitants, and this perception differs very much already from one member of the Johnson family to the other' (Schaetzle 19). This is the reason for me to argue that the bad circumstances in the Bowery of New York City contribute to the decay of the moral values and shape lives, as well. The very title of the 1893 version illustrates that the city is also an important factor inthe novella: Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (A Story of New York). [...]
The history of crisis management shows that companies embark on particular strategies in response to crisis. So why are some companies&#8217; crisis communication strategies successful, while others are not? The purpose of this book is to broaden the existing knowledge of crisis response strategies by focusing on corporate identity as one of the factors that is most likely to influence their choice. Drawing upon insights from the sensemaking and chaos theories, as well as traditional and alternative, non-European, approaches to strategy formation, Olga Bloch contends that there is a reciprocal relationship between corporate identity and crisis response strategies. This relationship is examined on the example of Toyota Motor Corporation&#8217;s communication in response to a crisis caused by a series of recalls of its vehicles in 2009-2010. Content The notion of crisis: conceptual framework Building up a theoretical framework: review of the relevant theories Corporate identity and stakeholder perceptions in crisis Case study: crisis response strategies of Toyota Target groups Academics, researchers, undergraduate and graduate students in organization studies, sociology, management and communication Corporate communication practitioners and company managers The Author Olga Bloch has completed her Ph. D. at the Faculty of Humanities of the Bergische Universität Wuppertal. Ms. Bloch is a project manager at International Advisory Services of Frankfurt School of Finance & Management gGmbH.